1Fundamental Concepts and Structure of Organisms
When embarking on life science studies, it is natural to begin with an overview of basic concepts and structures of living organisms. Through examples of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, unicellular and multicellular organisms, and animals and plants, we can understand the basic characteristics of living things that differentiate them from non-living things, including membrane structure, proliferation, heredity, morphogenesis, metabolism, and environmental responses. This chapter describes the membrane-bound cell, the basic unit of living things, and its intracellular structure. In addition, it explains the phylogenetic systematics of organisms and the position of microorganisms in it.