As units of life, cells have fundamental and shared properties/functions of dividing and proliferating to produce offspring. While all intracellular constituents must be doubled prior to cell division, a conspicuous characteristic of DNA, the genetic information-carrying molecule, is that there is only one molecule of it per cell. During cell proliferation, the DNA molecule in the parent cell is accurately replicated into two identical molecules, with each molecule being accurately segregated to the two daughter cells. In this chapter, we study about the ingenious mechanism of DNA synthesis and replication, unseen in other macromolecular syntheses, whereby the parent DNA strand is used as a template to accurately replicate the same DNA molecule.

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