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11Structure of Cells

All prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells possess the necessary or fundamental structures and functions for proliferation through self-replication. These include the cell membrane, which isolates the cells from their external environment and through which substances are selectively transported ; genes that possess the information used as the blueprint of the cell; and gene replication functions required for cell proliferation, protein synthesis systems, and various types of metabolic pathways. On the other hand, eukaryotic cells have also developed various structures and functions that are not observed in prokaryotic cells. For example, the intracellular membranous compartments of eukaryotic cells contain different types of organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts (Fig. 11-1). In this chapter, we explore the fundamental structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and study the structure of the secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) and the mechanisms of cell adhesion. We also explore the fundamental epithelial structures responsible for intercellular adhesion and adhesion between cells and ECM.

Fig. 11-1 Diagram showing the structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

(A) Basic structure of a prokaryotic cell (a bacterial cell). The pili and flagellum have a structure different from that in eukaryotic cells.
(B) Basic structure of a eukaryotic cell (an animal cell; Fig. 11-8).

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