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12Intracellular Transport

Eukaryotic cells utilize various substance transport systems, such as those for the transport of proteins synthesized in the ribosome and molecules as well as foreign bodies from outside the cell and organelles. Such complex intracellular transport systems substantially differ between eukaryotic cells, which have developed membranous compartments inside the cell, and prokaryotic cells, which do not have such a structure. Although small prokaryotic cells lacking membranous compartments easily transport substances by diffusion, each eukaryotic cell, which is sufficiently large to possess numerous types of membranous compartments, requires a separate intracellular transport system. This chapter focuses on material transport systems observed between membranous compartments in eukaryotic cells and explains the basic mechanism of intracellular transport. It also explains mechanisms that are closely connected to the intracellular transport system, such as uptake and secretion of substances and digestion of substances within the cell.

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