16Energy Production and Metabolic Pathways

This chapter discusses the mechanisms of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, aerobic respiration, and plant photosynthesis, which are the main components of bioenergy production and metabolic reactions. ATP synthesis is divided into substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation by aerobic respiration, and photophosphorylation by photosynthesis. These pathways make up more or less all the major energy production pathways in cells. Also discussed in this chapter is carbon dioxide fixation by photosynthesis. Reactions using utilizable energy in living organisms are diverse, but the means by which energy and organic substances are produced are universal and very simple. The mechanisms of energy production have been researched as a key topic in biology throughout the 20th century. In particular, the energy production system via redox reactions in biomembranes has been elucidated in details from the atomic/molecular to cellular levels, and ongoing cutting-edge research in this field is still one of the hottest topics today in biology.

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