23Biological Evolution and the Genome

The number of species inhabiting the earth is currently listed at approximately 1.5 million, and is expected to exceed 10 million in the future. From a mere glance at a list of the diverse species that live on the planet, it is impossible to picture the lifestyles led by these species. In other words, you cannot tell anything about how the population of an individual species increases or decreases through interactions with other species. In reality, however, generations of organisms are renewed through the repetition of living, reproducing, and dying in diverse environments. So it is important to understand their ecological dynamics based on their actual mode of life. This chapter discusses the adaptation of living organisms to their environment, the sociobiology of the group, biological interactions and population dynamics, biological communities and the coexistence of diverse species, and the structure and dynamics of ecosystems. 

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